Respond to the discussions,

1. Genetic disorders are caused by an alteration in DNA or chromosome that disrupts the single-gene sequence whereas congenital disorders are abnormalities if structure, functions or metabolism that are present at the time of birth. Not all genetic disorders like down syndrome and can be determined at birth. For example Huntington’s Disease is an inherited defect in a single gene and it is an autosomal dominant disorder which is generally diagnosed at age 30-50 (Noquiera,2018). Cystic fibrosis is a recessive genetic disorder in which the lungs and pancreas are mostly effected. Family genetic testing can be done as well as a sweat test at birth help diagnose this genetic disorder. Congenital disorders are more like birth defects such as club foot and dwarfism where the structure has been altered. These abnormalities are usually detected at birth and can be seen because it has to do with the structure, function or metabolism of the person. Some birth defects can also be corrected through surgical procedures.

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Retrieved from

Nogueira, J. M., Franco, A. M., Mendes, S., Valadas, A., Semedo, C., & Jesus, G. (2018). Huntington’s Disease in a Patient Misdiagnosed as Conversion Disorder. Case Reports In Psychiatry, 1-4. doi:10.1155/2018/3915657

2. At birth newborns are screened for genetic disorders to identify if they are present. Genetic diagnostic testing is not available for all genetic conditions. A congenital disorder is present at birth. A genetic disorder maybe present at birth or later in life. An example of a congenital disorder is spina bifida, a neural tube defect. It is a congenital abnormality causing disability whereby the spinal cord and the neural tube fails to develop normally. Most children with spina bifida have some degree of paralysis, which affects mobility as well as bowel and bladder control (Bannink, F., Idro, R., & Van Hove, G., 2016). Sickle cell disease is a genetic disorder that approximately 100,000 American’s live with. It is a group of recessively inherited red blood cell disorders characterized by abnormal hemoglobin called hemoglobin S or sickle hemoglobin in the red blood cells. Red blood cells that contain sickle hemoglobin are inflexible and can stick to vessel walls causing a blockage that slows or stops blood flow. These chronic complications can lead to increased morbidity, early mortality or both (Hulihan, M., Hassell, K. L., Rapheal J.L., Smith-Whitley, K. & Thorpe, P., 2017).


Bannink, F., Idro, R., & Van Hove, G. (2016). Parental Stress and Support of Parents of Children with Spina bifida in Uganda. African Journal of Disability, 5(1), 225.

3. The technology in the 21st century has made it possible to screen out possible diseases and defects of the unborn child more than ever. Although not all genetic disorders can be detected at birth, some diseases can also be caused by environmental influences; there have been great attempts in the development of more precise testing for the unborn child to predict any present or future diseases (Nathan, 2017). A common birth defect that is known to be caused by a chromosomal abnormality is Down syndrome (Trisomy 21) (Nathan, 2017). This is a disorder caused by an extra set of chromosomes that developed during pregnancy that can lend its victims to a lifelong of developmental and intellectual disabilities (Nathan, 2017)). There also some diseases that affect cell mutations caused by environmental factors to include different type of cancers, Alzheimer’s and heart conditions to name a few(Stoppler &Shiel, 2016). Congenital and genetic diseases have some major differences. According to Stoppler & Shiel, (2016), Genetic diseases are also called hereditary diseases and are passed to the baby by both parents; the baby can be a carrier and there may also be no symptoms associated with the disease or it can show up later in life. Some examples would be Sickle-Cell Anemia, Diabetes or certain mental conditions (Lorecentral, 2017). Congenital conditions are usually present before birth and can be directly passed from the parents; congenital conditions can also be caused by an environmental condition (Lorecentral, 2017). Spina Bifida, Cystic Fibrosis, Huntington’s Syndrome are some examples that are congenital in nature (Lorecentral, 2017).

Lorecentral, 2017. Difference between Hereditary and Congenital Diseases, Retrieved from

Nathan, A, (2017). What can genetic testing really tell you? Popular Science Magazine, Retrieved from://

Stoppler, M., & Shiel, W., (2016). Genetic Diseases Overview,, Retrieved from

4. Life is busy in my home as the kiddos have many projects, and school activities which I am currently coaching a few of them. I work fulltime as well as my husband so one time we do have together is at the dinner table. Tonight I decided to talk about fingerprints, and wanted my families thoughts and ideas as to why we have them. My son Kenneth, who is 11 years old, mentioned how it is all a part of the matrix, and how the government has to be able to find us no matter what. My husband mentioned how we probably need it for grip, but this made him want to further research and he found out through sources that scientists actually believed the same thing, but after experimentation they realized that smooth hands and fingers can grip just as good. So I asked my daughter Samantha who is 8 years old what she thought, and she stated that it is because we have so many skin layers that they wrinkled up. I have to say I may agree with my daughter. I remember from anatomy and physiology that the we are missing the first layer of skin on our hands a feet. the layer on our hands and feet is called The stratum lucidum which is a thin, clear layer of dead skin cells in the epidermis. Maybe it is possible that since this layer is the toughest layer of skin on our body that it is made to withstand harsh elements, and like my daughter says has wrinkles and ridges to increase strength all the while being unique and unlike any other. I don’t have the answer, but I enjoyed the conversation and look forward to hearing what you all think.

5. I honestly never thought about why we have different fingerprints. Each individual has a unique set of fingerprints and even identic twins have different fingerprints. The shape and the uniqueness of the fingerprints will remain probably a mystery for a long time. It definitely helps the justice people to find some criminals and to differentiate by their fingerprints. Do we have fingerprints to help us feel things better, to help us grip things better? We’ll probably never know. One study I read actually showed that two persons can have the same fingerprints, like one in 64 billion people. I know that in the court of law they are trying to rely more on DNA than fingerprints. I think that having unique fingerprints it is amazing but on the other hand if someone takes an object that you touched it basically can place the object and implicitly your person by the presence of fingerprints somewhere you never been before. So I see benefits but disadvantages too.

6. This would be one of those million dollar questions. This topic is one that has baffled scientists and has been tested numerous times. I’m sure God knew what he was doing in his infinite wisdom. Fingerprints, also known as dermal ridges, are formed in the basal layer so the surface cannot be altered in any way, shape or form. These dermal ridges are uniquely present on our fingertips and the soles of our feet and are only identifiable to that specific person. They develop while in utero, are unique to each individual and cannot be changed or altered for life. Some scientists believe that they are helpful for grip purposes. Yet others believe that they reduce our ability to grip objects. Why we have them will probably forever be unknown, but they are a useful and a definitive tool in identification and security purposes, which is why I believe our creator had this purpose in mind.

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